Total Quality Management in Construction Projects
Quality is in its essence a way of management of the organization.
Quality is conformance to customer requirements. The requirements have many dimensions. The number of quality experts also called quality gurus contributed to the evolution of quality.
A name itself is sufficient to describe everything but a bit more clarification will add to a base for the description. Total quality management is a management’s approach towards the quality, it can be in regard to products, customer satisfaction and employees satisfaction. The concept of TQM was developed by an American W. Edwards Deming and i.e. why it is called as Deming’s concept of TQM .He introduced this concept for improving the quality of various products and services. Earlier it was just related with the quality of products which a organization is producing but now other concepts like marketing, finance design, customer service has also joined the area. Which means that now good numbers of things are there to manage. TQM works on one belief that mistakes can be avoided and defects can be prevented. And management should believe in watching each and every step.
TQM is now a day’s called as TPM (total productivity management) and an organization needs to consider ABCD for the effective application of TQM where A stands for accident cure , B stands for breakdown , C stands for cost reduction and D stands for damage. This policy of ABCD is in relation to product and if TQM needs to be introduced a positive attitude from the side of management and employees is required and then a collective effort will come up. TQM should give chance for unleashing employee’s creativity and potential. The aim of TQM is to reduce variations in quality of the products as well as in the working of whole organization. For the successful implementation of TQM, an organization must consider the commitment from all the level of organization. A concept of Six sigma is a part of TQM. It is a strategy developed by Motorola and it helps to detect the defects and to remove them.
TQM talks about the satisfaction of customer, supplier, employees etc. and it requires continuous improvement. If the workers of an organization are efficiently working then their morale will go up. TQM works effectively if the organization works in a family manner. Here management is like a father, employees are the children and manager is like mother and as father and mother takes care for their home collectively the same way , management and managers are supposed to take care for their organization with the help of tool called TQM. Total quality management is called total because entire organization is involved, Quality means degree of excellence. And management in literal sense means getting things done by others. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work. The earlier introduced quality management concept is now taken over by Total quality management. To have effective TQM the first requirement is strong internal motivation and emotional involvement for implementation. So the concept of TQM talks about adopting the new policy, creating quality products, eliminate defects, estimate for breakdown, accidents etc . Hence TQM should be purpose driven so first the whole organization should be willing to accept the change then only TQM can actually affect the organization in a positive way.
Need for quality:
The need for quality was felt, during World War II due to the unprecedented need for manufacture goods. From them on methodologies for assuring quality in products and services evolved continuously finally lead to TQM.
Evolution of quality (or) GURUS OF TQM:
SHEWHART - Control chart theory
- PDCA Cycle
DEMING - Statistical Process Control
JURAN - Concepts of SHEWHART
- Return on Investment (ROI)
FEIGANBAUM - Total Quality Control
- Management involvement
- Employee involvement
- Company wide quality control
ISHIKAWA - Cause and Effect Diagram
- Quality Circle concept
CROSBY - “Quality is Free”
- - Conformance to requirements
TAGUCHI - Loss Function concept
- Design of Experiments
Quality is fitness for use
Quality is conformance to requirements