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Facilities Identification for Support


Following the identification of a project site, it is crucial to look at the nearby and surrounding infrastructure, including rail lines, bridges, roads, and even ports for the transportation of construction support materials, workers, equipment, etc. Additionally, suitable fabrication shops for coating facilities are identified, along with a number of other facilities thought to be important for the specific project.





Activities Relating to Materials


Steel and concrete are the two most commonly utilised building materials. Establishing the different mechanical properties of steel is crucial for determining project operability and safety. As a result, all steel-using vendors are expected to test small samples of the steel being used and provide the results in writing to the project QA/QC Manager. These tests determine the material's tensile strength and/or brittleness under various environmental variables that have been adapted to reflect real-world operational circumstances.





Another crucial component of building and construction management is welding. During this stage of construction, welding qualifications, materials, and techniques are crucial.





Concrete is far more difficult to utilise than steel since steel is produced before it is used and may be kept in big amounts for extended periods of time. However, using concrete usually happens right away. As a result, it is made quickly before being poured, and in relatively tiny amounts.





The water-to-cement ratio and the general use of a certain "Type" of cement are both crucial. And it's also crucial that everyone working on or overseeing cement concrete construction is conversant with these factors.



of cement.

To alter the behaviour of the concrete, such as setting time, permeability, freeze and thaw, exposure to different chemicals, compressive strength, and so on, numerous chemical admixtures are available. Concrete mixes can have technical designs where several properties, particularly compressive strength, are predetermined22.


Small cylinders are cast from the concrete that is being poured in order to determine and test the concrete's design compressive strength.





The findings of the laboratory testing of these cylinders are then compared to the stated concrete strength criteria for a specific project as developed by the concrete mix design engineer.





The "slump test" is another crucial measurement. In comparison to pours on land, it does not apply as much to concrete placed underwater. Pouring the concrete mixture into a 12-inch-tall inverted conical vessel will serve as the test's container. high, then immediately setting it so that the bigger end of the conical vessel is facing down on a clean, smooth surface. The concrete cone is then allowed to distort under the weight of gravity before the conical vessel is removed, and the height of the deformed concrete cone is measured and compared to the initial height. Results estimated to forecast the workability and strength of the concrete mix 23.





Hardware Associated


It is important to confirm that the chosen contractor has access to the necessary equipment and has the necessary certifications for it to meet performance standards. It's also critical to note that rental equipment is accessible nearby. We look for equipment that can accommodate different pipe sizes, construction locations, and lodging.





approving and certifying



Before beginning the construction, many certificates and approvals are needed. Depending on the country of origin, the location, and the items being transported, every project has unique criteria.

Onshore pipelines, for instance, in the US require FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) authorization. Environmental certificates: certifications or approvals from the archaeological authorities, followed by local authorities like states and towns, who may have additional requirements to be met before building can begin.





II.





Construction


In earlier chapters, this was covered for both onshore and offshore pipelines, and more information will be provided in subsequent chapters as well. Both types of pipeline construction procedures are significantly different from one another. As a result, the necessary personnel and tools must be present when staging a construction project. schedules, price, and quality of


Monitoring of fabrication and construction is necessary to complete the project successfully.





III. Post-Construction


Backfilling and other related tasks are performed on both pipelines


hydrotesting. While offshore pipelines often need a distinct kind of control for flow assurance, onshore pipelines may also use SCADA-type control systems. These subjects won't be covered in this article because they are operational in nature (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE). Even while it is encouraging to know that these components are significant and would be included in construction, their influence on the field of construction management is minimal.

Chapter Nine







Testing and certification of tools and materials







Without specific testing to ensure that they adhere to the specified values, the mechanical properties of the majority of materials, particularly those with heterogeneous compositions, cannot be depended upon. Concrete and steel are two of the main materials utilised in the construction sector. When cement, sand, water, and other ingredients are combined, concrete is created. Masonry and glass are the next materials listed after these.





Since some of the tests, particularly for concrete, are carried out on the project site or in tandem with field building work, this discussion will be restricted to the steel and concrete in this ARTICLE (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE).





Typically, qualified professionals working under the direction of a licenced engineer conduct these tests. However, the people that perform the testing are often trained and qualified by reputable organisations like ACI, ASME, and ASCE.





When evaluating the calibre, reliability, and correctness of test results, technicians' training and certification provide assurance of competence and accountability. The most crucial thing to keep in mind is that none of these tests are conducted at random or just in accordance with the wishes of the Owner, Contractor, or Construction Manager.







These are the specifications set forth by the recognised institution; the American



Organization for Testing Materials (ASTM). For the majority of building materials and property, this agency produces testing protocols and specifications. Every college library has




Some of these standards are also available for purchase directly from ASTM. These pricey reference ARTICLE (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE)s are typically preserved in school libraries and computerised repositories of sizable businesses.





The National Highway Institute, State Highway Administration, and other organisations provide preparation and training for the certification tests.





The majority of clients demand that only certified experts do the project testing activities for the Departments of Transportation and the various technical institutes. This obligation will always apply to initiatives that are sponsored by the federal and state governments.





Part 637 of the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR) for Construction Quality Assurance of the US Federal Highway Administration (QA)





All sampling and testing data used in decision-making must specifically be conducted by competent sampling and testing professionals, according to procedures. Employers who award construction contracts and other relevant decision-makers will explicitly specify the level of "qualification" needed for field personnel. A particular certification confirms that the technician has the education and practical expertise needed to carry out specified testing and deliver reliable results.22







Earning a certificate of completion for attending a seminar or workshop and studying to pass an exam required by the industry for a particular construction industry technician certification are two very different things. That is not to imply, however, that attending a workshop or seminar will not assist you prepare for a certification exam. But it cannot take the place of an earned reward.



certification obtained through testing.

The various certifying/testing agencies utilise different sorts of technician levels and certification criteria. For instance, persons who have passed an exam with the National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies may be excused from repeat testing and experience requirements if they have a specialised certification from the American Concrete Institute (ACI) (NICET).






The certification and testing agencies demand proof of job-related knowledge and experience before giving the certification. This is particularly true for those seeking higher-level certifications, which is typically a more difficult process. These programmes frequently have a broader focus and a wider breadth than simply a few particular test procedures.






The American Concrete Institute (ACI), the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA), the Asphalt Institute, and the National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies are just a few of the organisations that provide certification and re-certification programmes (NICET). Each organisation lays out the rules, standards, and procedures in great detail for each certification level.





A component of the National Society of Professional Engineers is the National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies. Testing of building materials, geotechnical work, and programmes pertaining to transportation construction are all included in the Civil Engineering Technologies certification programmes.

The essential and frequently necessary tests on the different building materials and equipment indicated below are briefly covered in the pages that follow:


Concrete


Steel


Equipment


mechanical and electrical


Vessels


Miscellaneous







COMPLEX TESTS


Bulk test


Freeze/thaw


increased ageing


rupture modules


Bulk specific gravity and absorption


compression power


Flexural power


Resistance to abrasion


Youthful modulus


resistance to slid


testing for air and water ingress


impact mitigation, etc.




The following tests, however, are the most typical ones. While the work is ongoing, these tests are carried out in the field. As a result, these tests immediately affect the construction management, and the outcomes have an immediate impact on construction activities.


Bulk test


Test of compressive strength


Test for water permeability






SLUMPTEST


The "slump test" is the most well-known of these tests. Before leaving the batching facility and when arriving at the construction site, a slump test is conducted.

The concrete slump test gauges how fluid new concrete is before it hardens. It is carried out to examine whether freshly poured concrete is workable and, consequently, how easily concrete flows. It can also be used as a sign of a batch that was not properly blended.





In the United States, the slump is performed in accordance with the steps outlined in ASTM C143. A sample of freshly-poured concrete is taken and tested for slump after the concrete has been batch-mixed in the factory. Before being sent from the batching plant to the field, the concrete is checked to make sure it complies with the designed mix design.





If the tests reveal non-compliance, the concrete is corrected or rejected for pouring, and a fresh batch is made and tested for conformity with the mix design once more before being deployed.





Once on site, a sample of concrete is secured and tested once again for slump. Prior to testing, the temperature of the concrete mix is measured using a calibrated thermometer. Concrete workability is determined by the concrete slump value, which in turn reveals the water-cement ratio. The concrete slump value is influenced by a number of variables. A list of the following elements is provided below:


Chemical, fine, particle size, and moisture characteristics of a material




Equipment for mixing, batching, and transporting concrete


Slump-testing methodology and test-equipment condition,


Cement's surface temperature


concrete with air content,


air's temperature


the concrete's free water content


Date of the last concrete mixing at the time of the test


Chemical admixtures are particularly good in regulating bulk values. However, how much is mixed in, how the additions are made, etc., impacts how successful they are.





A "Slump Cone," a conical frustum used in the slump test, is used in the procedure. It has linked handles and is open on both sides (fig. 9-1). The internal diameter of this metal object is normally 200 millimetres (7.9 in) at the bottom and 100 millimetres (3.9 in) at the top. It stands 305 mm (12.0 in) tall.22








Fig. 9-1. Slump test apparatus




This Slump Cone is set down on a level, hard surface that isn't absorbent. The cone is then three times filled with new concrete. Using a 2-ft (600 mm) long metal rod with a bullet-nose, each layer is tamped 25 times.

approximately 5/8-in. (16-mm) in diameter (ASTM Code Requirement)21. Excess concrete is wiped off flush with the top of the mould or cone after this truncated cone has been filled with new concrete. The mould or cone is then carefully raised vertically upward to avoid disturbing the concrete.






The concrete then collapses without lateral support and under its own weight. Consequently, the shape of a concrete cone might vary; see illustrations below. Concrete that has slumped is referred to as having "real slump," "shear slump," or "collapse slump," depending on the concrete's profile. see fig. 9-2. By measuring the distance from the top of the slumped concrete to the level of the top of the slump cone, the height of the concrete cone or its slump is identified. If the slump test yields a "collapse slump" result, a new sample of concrete from the same batch of concrete should be used for the subsequent slump test. The presence of an excessive or insufficient water-cement ratio in the concrete mix is proved by collapsed slump. The only concrete mix that is generally usable is one with a real slump. For concrete that is pumpable and highly workable, the slump test is inappropriate. The range of slump values for roads is 0 to 25 mm; for foundations, it is 10 to 40 mm; and for typical reinforced concrete laid vibratorily, it is 50 to 90 mm. Pumping normally takes place where the spacing between the reinforcing is narrow and the slump exceeds 100 mm21.

Fig. 9-2. (File:Types of Concrete Slump.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shape of concrete after mold is removed.jpg)






Test for Compressive Strength


Additional concrete is taken from freshly prepared concrete at the same time as specimens for the slump test and poured in small cylinders or cubes of a certain size in accordance with ASTM guidelines.





Concrete strength tests must be the average of at least three 4 x 8 in. tests in order to be accepted, according to Sections 26.5.3.2 and 26.12.1.1 of ACI 318-14, ACI 301-16 "Specifications for Structural Concrete," and ACI 311.6-09 "Specification for Ready Mixed Concrete Testing Services." two 6 × 12 in. cylinders or (100 x 200 mm) cylinders. cylinders measuring 150 x 300 mm.






Concrete cylinder specimens are broken in a compression testing equipment to determine compressive strength. Calculating compressive strength involves using

divided by the specimen's cross-sectional area is the failure load. Megapascals (MPa) or pound-force per square inch (psi) units are used to quantify compressive strength.





Unless otherwise specified in the construction papers, the specified compressive strength shall be based on the 28-day test results, as per section 19.2.1.3 of ACI 318-14. When using high early-strength concrete, the results of three or seven-day tests are used to track early strength increase. Results from three and seven-day tests, however, are not frequently utilised for acceptance criteria. In ACI 318-14 section 26.12.3.1, the compressive strength requirement is stated.





The average results of any three tests conducted back-to-back should be equal to or greater than the concrete's stipulated compressive strength. Test results shouldn't be more than 500 psi, or more than 10%, below the required compressive strength.



Having the required compressive strength22.





For frequently used concrete, the compressive strength ranges from 3000 to 4000 psi. The compressive strength of concrete, however, can range from 2000 psi to +10000 psi.

Test for Water Permeability


The pores within the cement matrix are what cause permeability. These pores may result from improper curing procedures, bleeding, inadequate compaction, and grading of the material's components. They may also be caused by an insufficient water cement ratio. Permeability in concrete is undesirable because it causes a number of issues. Concrete's permeability and porosity determine how well liquids can penetrate it. concrete containing water due to its


Permeable concrete may crack due to permeability when it freezes and thaws as a result of temperature changes. In the presence of oxygen and moisture, porous concrete may corrode the reinforcing.





Corrosion-induced rust formation multiplies the volume of the reinforcing steel and causes concrete to crack and spall. These are all unfavourable outcomes for the durability of concrete. By employing chemical admixtures and quality control, it is crucial that the right steps be taken to ensure that the permeability of concrete is lowered to the lowest level possible.





The ASTM C642-13, Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete, is the foundation for water permeability tests. One of the often performed permeability tests for new concrete involves casting three examples with a total size of 200 mm in diameter and 120 mm in height. The specimens are curing for 28 days before water pressure is applied to the roughened centre piece to allow water to permeate within the concrete. After 24 hours, the middle portion of 100 mm diameter is roughened and the remaining portion is sealed with cement paste. Before calculating the extent of water penetration, the following water pressure and pressure duration are maintained:





One bar for 48 hours (1 kg/cm2).


Three bars for the upcoming day.

7 bars during the following 24 hours.

96 hours of testing at various pressures total. In order to assess the degree of water penetration, the specimens are then divided in a compression testing machine so that it splits them diagonally rather than crushing them.






Calculated is the average of the three highest values of water penetration. The specimens are deemed to have failed the permeability test if the depth of water penetration is greater than 25 mm.





Other concrete tests include the Rapid Chloride Ion Penetration test, the water absorption test, and the initial surface absorption test, among others. These tests are used to assess the durability of concrete and its capacity to withstand weathering action, chemical attack, and any process of deterioration.







STEELTESTS


For example, steel can be tested for tensile strength, corrosion, creep, fatigue, buckling, chemical reactivity to various chemicals, fracture, impact, thermal expansion, and yield strength, among other other sorts of testing. The properties that are significant in industrial building will be the only ones covered in this presentation.

Tensile power






Buckling






Fracture resistance






Hardness





The primary purpose of the test procedures is to identify the steel's specified mechanical properties. Metallurgical laboratories, manufacturers, and other producers and consumers of metals and alloys can inspect and assess a material's compliance to a material specification set by the ASTM Committee A01 and its subcommittees using these physical and mechanical testing standards.

Testing of Tensile





The strength and ductility of a material are determined by a tension test under uniaxial tensile pressures. Engineering design, comparing the qualities of various materials, quality control, and other areas can all benefit from this information.






As specified by testing standards/codes, specimens for tension tests have specific standard dimensions. The tensile strength of the material can be accepted using these test procedures. Steel is subjected to strain tests while it is at room temperature.






The determination of yield strength, yield point elongation, tensile strength, elongation, and decrease of area all produce positive results. For the various specimen morphologies, specific specimen dimensions are given. Most round specimens must have gauge lengths that are proportional to their diameter, such as 4D or 8D, etc. Specifications for a test method must include any exceptions, if any. Related ASTM standards are ASTM E8 / E8M-16a, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, and B557 Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products.






bolstering bars





Since concrete is particularly weak in tension, reinforcing bars are utilised to give the concrete members tensile strength. These bars come in a range of dimensions and forms. Reinforcing is tested for tensile and bend strength in accordance with ASTM A370, A615/A615M, A706/A706M, A996/A996M, and



A1035/A1035M.²².

Buckling





Structures exhibit this significant phenomenon when subjected to compressive loads. A abrupt bending of a structural element in a local or global direction is what defines buckling. Even if the stresses that develop within the structure might still be much below critical levels, this could still happen. Microscopic material irregularities and/or slight changes in the original size and shape of a structural part are two causes of this abnormality. A test specimen experiences increasing deflection when the load is raised, which makes the member unstable and causes buckling and structural failure. Deformations are seen and measured during this test in a compression machine under various loads. It is a helpful test for designing pipelines as well as columns and beam columns.

Test for Impact/Charpy V-Notches





A common test for estimating how much energy a material would absorb during fracture is the Charpy impact test or Charpy V-notch test. The amount of energy absorbed is a gauge of a material's notch toughness. It is employed to determine the temperature at which a material transitions from ductile to brittle. It is frequently employed in the sector to compare studies of material toughness under various temperatures. In this test procedure, metallic materials are tested utilising Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) specimens and test equipment.






The user of this test method is responsible for comparing the MCVN data with conventional Charpy V-Notch (CVN) data and applying the MCVN data, or both, to the evaluation of ferrite material behaviour. This test method does not specifically address these matters. Sub-size specimens are longer than miniature specimens, allowing for the conduct of more tests on a given volume of material. In addition, small specimens are created with stress fields that are comparable to those of traditional Test.

E23 methods specimens.

A conventional Test Methods"E23" test machine with appropriately modified anvils and a striker may be used to carry out the MCVN test, or a machine with a lesser capacity. The Standard Test Method for Impact Testing of Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch Specimens, ASTM E2248-15, is the foundation for all test procedures, specimen dimensions, and specimen shape.







HARDNESS





A typical test for determining the hardness of metals is the "Hardness Test," also referred to as the "Rockwell Hardness Test." It is based on Subcommittee E28.06 of ASTM E18.







An empirical indentation hardness test that can reveal important details about metallic materials is the Rockwell hardness test. Tensile strength, wear resistance, ductility, and other physical properties of metallic materials may be related to this information. It is a tool for quality control and is used in the selection of materials when a requirement for the material is hardness.







The industry standard for hardness testing is the Rockwell hardness test. Rockwell hardness testing at a particular spot on a part might not accurately reflect the physical properties of the entire component. This accepted test procedure offers tracability to national Rockwell hardness standards, which are listed and frequently used to determine the hardness of materials.



Mechanical and electrical equipment





This is not testing as such, but rather the accuracy and performance capabilities of testing and building machinery are being verified.

The owner's representatives visit the factory during the manufacturing process to ensure that the equipment meets the requirements. The "FAT" or "Factory Acceptance Test" is used to describe this.







This "FAT" performs QA/QC duties in addition to having cost implications. Just consider the impact of newly constructed machinery that is deployed to the field without "FAT" or problems. In this instance, it is necessary to transfer the damaged equipment back to the factory for repair before sending it back to the construction site. So, the expense of transportation both ways and the lost time of construction, not to nothing of slippage in the whole project construction schedules, which leads to the lost potential output time of the finished project.







The other testing is to establish the accuracy of the machinery, which are used to verify the specification adherence and the quality of a product such as the compressive strength of concrete tested by crushing a concrete cylinder, and the compression machine, which shows the load it took to crush it. Therefore, it's crucial to check if the machine displays the proper load. And consequently, these machines are calibrated every so often for this reason.







Then there is the verification of the fundamental operation of specific machinery, such a crane or a bulldozer. Inspections are carried out to ensure that the machinery is in good working order, capable of supporting the necessary loads, mobile in all directions, and free of any defects that would jeopardise its functioning and safety7.





Vessels






For offshore surveys, offshore pipelaying, and other related operations, specialised vessels are absolutely necessary for offshore projects. Building anything costs a lot of money.




offshore. You need a vessel of some sort in order to construct anything. The price of leasing these ships is high. A pipelay ship may cost up to $500 000 per day or more. It only makes sense that owners and their representatives assess any vessel they intend to use for offshore work to ensure that it complies with the necessary requirements.







Imagine an offshore pipeline that has been harmed due to a poor pipelay vessel. One of the largest oil and gas firms in the world was working on a real-world project when it occurred. When compared to the examination of a vessel before it embarks on a building job, the cost of such an accident is considerable.







Repairing or replacing a broken offshore pipeline might cost tens of millions of dollars. Only if these vessels are promptly inspected by trained personnel before to deployment will these expenditures be reduced. This plays a significant role in construction management.

SECTION 10







Project Management







Project execution comes after front end engineering (FEED) and planning stages have been completed. In essence, this stage entails extensive engineering design, bidding, contractor selection, and the start of construction. Another procedure known as "Project Sanctioning" that takes place only before execution is required for large projects. The operating company's executives assess the project during this phase to ensure that it is viable and anticipated to meet the predetermined financial objectives.





The PMT (Project Management Team) and top management must unanimously concur that the project is good and meets all requirements set forth by the owners before the committee members can accept it and monies may be made available for use on the project. The project is considered to have been approved after this approval is obtained. The project manager can now use the funds for purchases and to cover costs associated with construction.





Along with the detailed design, procurement activities, bids, and project award, the following primary areas/actions make up a big project's execution process.

Contractor(s) mobilisation and demobilisation;






Technical Field Work


modifications/changes to the original design


store schematics


As-built blueprints





Permits




Hot





Cold





Environmental





Miscellaneous





management of change.





both quality control and assurance.





contract administration


Administration of subcontractors.


vendor administration.


infrastructure and facilities that are temporary.


storage and warehousing.


Facilities upkeep and storage item preservation


community and labour relations


project management strategy (PEP)






All of the aforementioned things are recognised, listed, and described together with timetables, project objectives, and an organisational chart with clearly defined roles and duties. Project Execution Plan, or "PEP," a project document, contains all of these.

Project Management Plan (PEP)


This is a written document that outlines every aspect of the project and how it will be carried out. It includes information on the scope, the procurement procedure, and strategies, particularly for the major equipment, as well as transportation and storage logistics.

A complete timetable, quality control and assurance (QA/QC) plan, HSE plan, progress report format and schedule, meeting minutes, organisational structure, permitting procedures, cost control strategies to be used, and all other associated tasks should be included.


After the project has been accepted by the project management team, this particular document becomes essentially a "Bible" for the members of the execution team to understand how to proceed with the project execution.





Although it serves as the project execution road map, the document is dynamic. The project management team can make changes to it by adhering to the project QA/QC manual's proper change approval procedure.





SCOPE


This is a written description of the project's components, location, the raw materials required for FEED, and the finished product that will be constructed once it is finished and commissioned. Consider, for illustration, that an offshore platform is to be built as part of the possible project, and that the owner is an oil corporation. Let's also imagine that an EPC contract is being offered for this project. The potential contractors are anticipated to submit competitive bids.





The bidders (contractors) must be aware of the needs and expectations of the oil company. The bidders or contractors should also be aware of the platform's purpose (drilling, compression, processing, quarters, etc.), the equipment needed, the depth of the water where it will be erected, its physical dimensions, etc.





The potential contractors should also be aware of the supplies that the Owner, who is in charge of equipment testing, commissioning, etc., will provide. The Owners occasionally retain control over certain of these procedures. These specifics are all included in the



scope. The scope includes a description of any supplies that the Owner might provide rather than having the Contractors buy them, such as line pipe for pipelines. The scope paper makes clear all of these specifics.

Less disputes and conflicts between the owner and the contractor are likely to arise during the execution stage, the more precise the scope specification is. This scope specification serves as the foundation for calculating project execution costs, which forms the bulk of the bid document. Proper project scope comprehension is essential for both successful project management and bidding.





Sight Creep


The project's overall description is contained in the scope, as previously said. The successful bidder/contractor is expected to complete the project in accordance with the scope and the project definition. The project scope, however, frequently varies during the execution phase for a variety of reasons; either it expands or contracts. For instance, if an engineering design error was made, it needs to be corrected; if the production volumes of oil and gas assumed during the project's early stages need to be revised due to changes in production plans; if there are issues in the field due to unforeseen geological features or accidents; if there are political issues, etc.; or if all of the above issues combine.





As a result, "Scope Creep" is the term used to describe these scope changes. This change in scope affects both the costs and timetables of the project. Especially if the construction contract did not foresee these scope modifications and as a result did not contain any measures to address anticipated scope creep difficulties, this scope creep can lead to dispute between the Contractor and the Owner. When a project is being executed, having a well defined scope and a well-thought-out contract may save a lot of money and hassles.

Office at Home Execution


As was previously said, the involvement of construction SMEs begins early in project planning and intensifies throughout the engineering phases.

This engineering work is frequently referred to as "home office execution" because it continues to be done in the engineering consultants' offices. The following subjects typically call for input on construction and constructability. The paragraph that follows discusses constructability input.





input on constructability





Making ensuring that whatever is being engineered is not only theoretically and mathematically correct in accordance with industry regulations and standards, but also constructible, is crucial during the engineering design phase. As long as you have enough money and time, you can construct any size and type of structure using engineering concepts, which are based on science, technology, and mathematics. However, that does not imply that you can construct it within the constraints of the project's resources.






For instance, when designing bridge beams that span 1,000 feet, constructability criteria would consider how to carry such beams, the size of the support foundations and columns needed to sustain them, as well as the equipment needed for lifting and moving them.






As a result, rather than mechanical strength design, constructability input in this situation will determine the size of the beams. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate construction SMEs in the project's early stages to prevent some overzealous engineer from building "1,000-ft long bridge beams" just because they can do it on paper. Because design engineers typically lack building experience, all of their plans may not be the most practical or cost-effective options.

The author was a member of a team in charge of construction management for Libya's "Great Man-made River Project," a 110-in. diameter water pipeline made of concrete.

Because the concrete pipe's sections were so large, specialist equipment had to be developed in order to carry and install the pipeline. Therefore, engineering design should be made in a way that would enable construction to effectively complete the project using tools, materials, and procedures that are easily accessible on the market.






Modular and Stick Built Construction





Construction is referred to as "stick constructed" when it is completed by physically constructing each component of the project as it is needed. Smaller constructions like a home, a bridge, a road, etc. are often all stick-built.






However, while working on large projects, significant portions of the project scope may be constructed in a factory somewhere else before being transported to the construction site and integrated into the project. In general, this approach is more affordable than the stick-build approach. Thus, units constructed away from the project site are referred to as modules. These modules are then integrated into the overall project plan and set in the appropriate order on their foundations.






In some cases, this technology can even be used in the construction of homes and bridges. For instance, the cabinetry for a residential structure is made in a cabinet factory and then is simply fitted in a home. Additionally, the bridge beams are often constructed in a factory before being shipped to the bridge site and put on the columns. In the field, modular construction speeds up work.






In a store, modules may be pretested or precommissioned. In a controlled factory, QA/QC procedures can be used for modular building more successfully.



environment




compared to the field of construction. The "modular" construction methodology is used in almost all offshore building projects.






Engineering with the "Human Factor"





An experienced construction professional can offer this as another crucial contribution during the engineering design process. Important and useful design concepts that must be followed include the manual operability of valves with the control wheel at breast level, the tolerance of floors and pathways to vibration, the amount of sound and noise, the need for ventilation and lighting, and many others.






These useful guidelines will help you run your business effectively and create a secure working environment. In essence, this method is called human factor engineering. In some cases, HS&E (OSHA) regulations may also include these products.






Equipment and Material Availability





Some materials are hard to come by, and it could be challenging to get them during times of high demand in order to meet deadlines. Umbilicals are made of "Duplex Stainless Steel" in offshore construction. If this material is in short supply, it can be challenging to locate vendors to build umbilicals during times of high demand.






Other materials may experience shortages as well, thus availability is a crucial factor to consider before the project timeline is finalised. used as subsea "Christmas-Trees"



Controlling the flow of oil wells might be challenging to obtain on short notice during a time of high demand. As mentioned in earlier chapters, the best way to avoid this kind of issue is to order materials and equipment that are in high demand as early in the project as possible.

Survey of Vendor Location and Capabilities





It is crucial to be aware of the capabilities and locations of the available vendors. Both elements have an effect on the timeliness and quality of the project. There would be more travel time and transportation costs, as well as logistical challenges, if the vendor's location was too distant from the construction site. Any advice from the construction specialists to allay these worries should be welcomed during the phases of planning, engineering, and procurement.

Identification, Evaluation, Ranking, and Mitigation of Risk


Every project is vulnerable to a variety of hazards, including errors in calculations and fabrication, weather effects, material shortages, theft, fabrication and shipping delays, political unpredictability, material shortage, spills, etc. If these risks are not properly addressed, they may have a negative effect on a project's budget and schedule.





As a result, all projects often maintain a Project "Risk Register" where potential risks are recognised, their approaches for reduction or elimination, and their effects are discussed beforehand. All potential risks are maintained up to date in the project risk register, which also establishes appropriate mitigation measures and ranks them according to the importance of their impacts.





Ranking of risks according to the seriousness of their possible effects on the project's finances and HSE. Because risk is such a vast and complicated topic, it is beyond the purview of this article to discuss it in full (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE). For in-depth research, students can consult a number of ARTICLE (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE)s. Few risk-related topics are discussed here. see fig. Use the risk assessment tool in 10-1 below.

Fig. Tool for Risk Assessment 10-1





(https://www.ready.gov/sites/default/files/5.2.1.0%20Risk%20Assessment%20Pro






climate window





Construction activity in several regions of the world practically drops by 50% or more during rainy and storm seasons, which is a crucial factor to take into account when planning and scheduling projects.






Availability of equipment





This is a crucial factor to take into account, particularly for large-scale, onshore as well as offshore construction projects. For instance, if the project requires the hiring of a pipelay vessel with a specific capability, such as one that can lay a 20-inch-diameter pipeline in 3,000 feet of water, it may or may not be available in the Gulf of Mexico at a specific time.




Onshore projects, special equipment, say a horizontal drilling machine, may be necessary and it may also be committed on another project during a certain time. In these situations, the owner/contractor must adjust the project schedule accordingly. The reason could be that it is already busy or committed with other project in some other location.






Sparing Thought





It is customary to stock some necessary and important spare equipment and parts on site to facilitate replacement in time so that there is no production loss. During the operational phase of the project, replacement of equipment or equipment parts is required due to wear and tear or accidents. Sometimes, these parts are hard to come by due to logistics and or import-export restrictions.






The project management typically has a philosophy designed expressly for this reason as to which and how many spare components would be ordered. This is commonly known as "Sparing Philosophy." However, keeping pricey spare things just in case they are needed is a costly investment.







Long Lead Products


A "Christmas Tree," a compressor, a turbine, or an electric motor are examples of sophisticated, difficult-to-construct goods that might take years to fabricate since they are very expensive and can only be made when an order is received. This kind of equipment is referred to as "Long Lead Items."






The project schedule must suitably take into account the fact that these goods are typically recognised early in the project and ordered as soon as possible.







Hazid and Hazop


These are safety assessments (HS&E) for the project's intended use of processes and procedures. To ensure that every area of HS&E is addressed, certain items are identified during the engineering process and thoroughly reviewed by the SMEs. Once all issues and dangers have been located, procedures for mitigating them are devised, followed, and approved by the HAZOP/HAZID team. The preceding chapter goes into greater depth on this.

a field operation


Field Execution includes all project management, engineering, construction management, field/site-related operations, and actual construction work. The primary connected operations that make up Field Execution are listed below.





Activation and Deactivation


It is time to begin moving toward the field as soon as the contractor selection is finalised and the contract is signed. The project's physical construction will take place here, or where the proverbial "rubber hits the road." However, it is a drawn-out process. In essence, the entire office activity needs to be moved to the field or reproduced there. The building supplies and tools need to be transported to the field or site. Mobilization is the term for this action.





Technical Field Work





The "Field Engineering" team is responsible for handling all changes made in the field once the project has mobilised and been set up on location. To keep the records up to date with all the changes, communications are maintained with the home office.

These alterations include the following categories:





Modifications/Changes to Original Design





As is clear from the title, the field engineering team uses the Management of Change (MOC) procedure to modify the engineering design as needed to account for scope changes or to correct any errors or omissions.





The key task in the execution phase is to put the whole cost and timeline into action. Construction typically starts once the full design and procurement activities are finished. The MOC processes and procedures must be followed when making any changes to these publications. More information on "MOC" is provided later in the article (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE).





Drawn by a shop





Shop drawings are meticulous representations created by those who fabricate equipment and steel in accordance with project specifications and engineering drawings. The fabricators provide these drawings to the design engineers for approval prior to beginning actual fabrication. Shop drawings are created and authorised on-site by the field engineering personnel if the fabrication is being done off-site.






Drawings for As-Built



A project is rarely built exactly as it was originally engineered. Usually, the initial drawings are altered to reflect changes made in the field to accommodate the situation. Shop drawings are those that depict the details as the real construction was being done. The field engineering team often develops and completes these drawings on site.

Permits





A number of permits are necessary before building can begin. Permit requirements change depending on the type of construction activity. Governmental organisations and public authorities issue some permissions. Others come from the project organisation that is in charge of managing H&ES. Some of the typical project permission requirements are listed below.

Permits issued by public authorities or the government


Permission to excavate a potential archaeologically important location





Permit to excavate a location that might contain a protected species





ecologically significant or sensitive locations





Construction site that could jeopardise public safety





Item import authorization





Permit required for disposal of construction waste in the ground, air, or water.

Licenses issued by the Site Management





Hot Licenses





A permit from the HS&E team is needed when welding or other electrical work is to be done. The work, location, and projected duration are all specified in the permit application. This is being done to protect the construction site against fire and explosions of any type. If it is judged that there is a chance of fire or exploration, such requests might be turned down. Only once it has been confirmed that doing "hot" work is absolutely safe is the permission granted.

Cold Licenses





These licences are necessary to allow the workers to carry out construction work in locations where routine operating or production activities are taking place. These permits effectively serve as a warning to the regular employees that someone else is temporarily present and that business as usual is not as usual. Therefore, great care must be taken for safety.

Controlling Change (MOC)


In the field of engineering and building, this is a crucial subject. This subject alone could be developed into a complete chapter. But in this case, all that is needed to give construction management students a fundamental grasp is the introduction. For managing change on large projects, engineers are typically hired on a full-time basis. Since the cost estimate at this point is definitive, it shouldn't be changed without the PMT's (Project Management Team) formal permission and signing, as well as without proper justifications accepted by all stakeholders. The MOC procedure is what it is referred to as.





Almost all projects will experience change as they are being built, and it is up to the project team to be able to notice change, assess its implications, and decide whether or not to implement it. Because of our inherent tendencies, we frequently accept variations and changes without resistance. One of the most frequent reasons for project cost or schedule overruns is the result of an unwise adjustment.






Most employees look to their supervisors to enact changes. But do managers have the necessary tools for the job? No, never! The supervisors' lack of experience or extreme emotional instability and patience is the cause. These are the qualities that construction management requires the most. Equal weight should be given to technical, strategic, and leadership qualities.

The MOC manager must be able to explain how a specific modification may impact project costs and timelines. The MOC manager typically employs the following procedures when approving a proposed or planned change:






Define the modification and explain its necessity with regard to strategic goals. Make sure the scheduling effect and financial analyses are included.





For this change document that higher management will be reviewing, make a flow chart.





Explain briefly why the project will benefit from this adjustment.





To maintain the change, it might be necessary to hire and train new employees, thus the cost impact of this activity must be taken into account.





Typically, after the exact design is 70% complete, construction can begin. By this point, the majority of the primary project components have typically been chosen and created. As soon as FEED is finished, the MOC procedure should begin. The Construction Management team can use a firm grasp of the cost and schedule forecasts as a roadmap to plan ahead and make wise choices. By addressing any possible issues early on, this can also help to make the earned value predictions more realistic and provide the PMT better control over decision-making.





The MOC processes, cost and schedule controls, and both are interdependent. If the cost and schedule forecasts are off, PMT will fail. both the



These two project controls' accuracy is reliant on the MOC procedure. Since scope and engineering design modifications after construction has started are common on all significant projects.

Whether these alterations are the result of incorrect engineering design, improper procurement, purposeful project scope changes, or alterations in construction, it makes no difference.





To manage changes to the project's scope by updating the engineering/construction drawings and evaluating the following factors is what the term "change management" refers to.





All of this is done in a very systematic manner, which calls for expert technology/methodology evaluations; management and stakeholder approval prior to a change are crucial.






When compared to changes made later in the project, early changes are less expensive. Therefore, it is crucial to determine whether a change is required before beginning the MOC process.

Quality Control and Assurance (QA/QC)


This function is constantly present in all project-related activities, including document control, engineering, procurement, fabrication, and reports from final inspections.

According to the project procedures and specifications, all documents must adhere to the proper format and approval processes. such as minutes from meetings





Minutes of meetings





The minutes of the meeting should be presented for feedback from all attendees before being approved by the PMT, the contractor, vendor, government agencies, or subcontractors. Meeting decisions that are documented in





Contracts bind parties to the minutes of meetings. These meeting minutes' formats are typically outlined in project procedures.





Communication with Vendors





All communications with vendors must be documented and approved via email or signatures. Additionally, these communication records take on legal and contractual obligations. According to the specifications in the procurement documents, the vendor must submit specific documents related to the machinery they are fabricating. Project procedures even specify the numbering scheme to be used for vendor documentation. All of these components of the project's QA/QC are accuracy-checked.





Calculations and drawings used in engineering



Senior SMEs must review, confirm, and approve these documents in accordance with project QA/QC guidelines. This is a crucial point where mistakes can become very expensive if they are not recognised and fixed. A few years after it was occupied, a very expensive residential high-rise tower in San Francisco began to lean to one side.






This is undoubtedly a design engineering error in the foundation design that was missed during the design phase and occurred most likely on the geo-technical side. Currently, there is no sure cure for it other than destroying the building, which would result in losses of tens of millions of dollars.

Even if an attempt were made to shore up and strengthen the foundation, it would be very expensive and might even worsen the damage to the building. The idea of taking a very cautious approach to QA/QC during the engineering phase of a project is reinforced by a number of examples in the industry.





Fabrication by vendors





In accordance with the project specifications, all fabrication must undergo shop testing and functional verification. Otherwise, the consequences could be much like the engineering mistakes discussed above.





Field Testing and Start up Activities





All testing and start up activities must conform strictly with the project specifications and project procedures. These activities should be witnessed by the respective vendors and SMEs as appropriate.






Sub-Contract Administration





There is generally a General Contractor over all responsible for the project execution. This General Contractor hires sub-contractors to do parts of the project to save time and to have certain specialised work accomplished by experts, such as plumbing; electrical, and so forth. This work is awarded mostly on non-competitive basis and the paperwork associated with hiring these sub-contractors as well as their payments and associated activities, is what is known as sub-contract administration.

Vendor Management





This is very sensitive work and must be navigated with great care. The project management team must make sure that the vendor product or equipment be of good quality, be ready on schedule, within budget, and delivered to site as required.

You need to be careful not to bully the vendor to achieve your objectives. Use all types of manoeuvring skills, but professionally. Vendor management is a demanding activity, especially in the oil and gas industry. It requires mutual understanding, discipline, organisation, unified goals, and a commitment on the part of the vendor as well as the PMT. Good relations go a long way in meeting these commitments and can have lasting impact on the successful completion of a project.






Prioritize, especially if you are managing many vendors, organising a prioritised to-do list is crucial to handle the most important matters first. Handle social calls wisely; it is OK to accept an invitation over lunch by a vendor every now and then same goes for gifts, but the engineer needs to ensure it is within reasonable boundaries and within the acceptable company policy.






Try to gain the vendor team’s trust. It is good to remember that both sides are seeking success, so mutual trust is one of the most important factors that will ensure safe equipment delivery. Pointing fingers and pressuring can work to some extent under reasonable circumstances but will almost certainly develop bitter relationships that may hurt the project sooner or later.






There are many vendors who are engaged in the field depending on the type and size of a project. Vendor communications are an important part of “Vendor Management”. These communications can be related to changes to the order; schedule variations, transportation, and logistics; testing, pre-commissioning, and commissioning. Another aspect is to manage logistics of visits to the vendor shops, as well as vendors’visits to the construction site. All these activities come under the umbrella of “Vendor Management”. It also involves close coordination and negotiations to meet schedules.

Vendor management begins early in the project, around pre-FEED phase of a project. It can be divided in four stages:





Establish Design Criteria & Specifications for the Equipment or structural element


Contact vendors via Request for Quotations (RFQ) & award the contact to fabricate the equipment or structural element.


QA/QC-Shop inspections & approvals


Field Installation, Pre-commissioning/Commissioning





Design criteria and specifications can be divided into two categories:





First covers the physical aspects of the equipment which are, pressure, temperature, and material; the main parameters to be met based on the design criteria.





Once these requirements are established for the equipment, vendors can be approached for information and eventually a quotation can be requested.





The second category is to establish manufacturing criteria, e.g., quality control plans, manufacturing specifications, testing specifications, delivery schedule, functional design specifications, design calculations and equipment drawings.





This is the time to contact vendors for quotations to manufacture this equipment.

Once the vendor selection process is over and a vendor is selected, a detailed contractual agreement is prepared. This agreement is constituted of liabilities between the buyer and the seller.

In the event there is a reluctance of meeting the contractual requirements. It spells out financial penalties as well as rewards for early delivery, if it is in the interest of the project.





Adetailed contract document should cover the expiry date, shop inspections, delivery and logistics requirements, vendor’s presence at the field at certain times (installation, pre-commissioning and commissioning), the range of services or equipment to be supplied and the equivalent pricing, the payment terms, any penalties that will be applicable in cases of delay or defects as well as the contract termination conditions; cost of shipment of defective equipment to the fabrication shop and then back to the field.





The last items should be noted by the Construction and Contracts Managers. Because this item is generally not thought out prior to contract preparation and is left out of contract documents. And this mistake can cost a lot of money to the project. This is where the Contracts Manager of the PMT comes into the picture. Generally, owner’s legal department also gets involved in reviewing the contractual documents, after the Contracts Manager’s review.





Once the legal framework has been agreed upon, the responsible package design engineer prepares a purchase request detailing the equipment data sheets, service specifications, part or model numbers, quantity required and the date by when the equipment is required. Some of the information shared before is repeated here and sent with the Purchase request to the Project Manager.

Procurement Management


Generally, the Project Procurement Manager of the PMT is either working concurrently with the Contracts Manager or starts immediately after the contract is signed and prepares a purchase order for this equipment. This purchase order is formally approved by the PMT (Project Manager) and then it is ready to be mailed to the vendor.

As soon as the purchase request/order is received and processed by the vendor, the responsible engineer holds a kickoff meeting to introduce the teams (project team and vendor team) and discusses schedules and any technical issues, risks for delay in delivery of the equipment.





Amitigation plan is discussed and developed for potential issues discussed. This is the time when the schedule becomes a crucial point of discussion if the equipment ordered is on a critical path in the project schedule.





This schedule crunch, especially for long-lead items, becomes a “make or break” point for the project. And here the ingenuity in negotiations of the procurement manager as well as other PMT members involved in this discussion is tested, in getting the best deal in the delivery of a particular equipment. Many a times the vendor can ask for premium payments over and above the cost of the equipment agreed upon to meet the tight schedules due to complexity of equipment or the supplier being too busy with other orders placed in advance of this order.





Once this meeting is accomplished and communications start, the project document control managers on both sides, (project team and vendor team) set up the files to ensure that the circulation of pertinent documents is under control and functioning properly. This action makes it possible for the responsible construction and engineering personnel to receive the required documents and design data of an equipment for project activities, such as dimensions and loads for foundation design. Aproper functioning document control system goes a long way in helping ensure timely delivery of an equipment and meeting the project milestones.





Now this process is ready to enter the third stage of the vendor management phase, which is essentially the QA/QC activity. This is a very critical stage for controlling quality of the product. Because the owner can observe the fabrication processes and the progression of the product before it is finished and ready to be



tested and shipped.

Therefore, to implement the approved quality control plan, the project will require deployment of shop inspectors. The professional background of an inspector is very important. Therefore, it is critical to hire qualified inspectors familiar with the project and project specifications. Many a times the inspectors are just warm bodies with no knowledge of what is going on. This can lead to inadequate QA/QC activity, which can lead to financial losses in the long run.





The author knows of an instance where an offshore pipeline was fabricated with an anti-corrosive liner inside the pipe. Because of a defective process of installing the liner and poor shop inspection, the liner was not properly attached to the pipe. Consequently, the pipeline corroded during service in a very short time after installation and stated leaking The defective pipeline had to be replaced with an expense of tens of million dollars, plus lost production in millions.





Saving money by hiring under or unqualified inspection services, is literally a “penny-wise and pound foolish” decision and must be avoided. While resident inspectors are still in the shop, a senior PMT member should also visit vendor shop regularly. It is very effective in controlling quality as well as schedule.





Avisit for half a day walking around the plant and have a follow up meeting on site can help develop a stronger bond between the project team and vendor team. It conveys the message to the vendor that the project team is concerned and alert about the product being fabricated.





Another issue comes when the owner has shortage of qualified shop inspectors and third-party inspection services are sourced. However, the author cautions the student to not let the equipment come out of the shop until it is checked and commissioned in the presence of an owner representative. The author once received six new diesel engines in the field, supposedly duly inspected by third party inspectors, and none of them would start. Eventually it was discovered that



none of them had any batteries installed in.