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Commercial Building

Hotels, shopping centres, skyscraper office buildings, sports stadiums, movie theatres, museums, etc. are all examples of commercial construction. Different architectural and functional specifications and requirements will apply to each of these structures.

Although these constructions may need pricey metals like stainless steel or aluminium as well as materials like glass, carpet, and tiles, the majority of the building supplies are concrete and steel. All of these must be constructed using the same project construction management tools, and their success will be evaluated using the same metrics—quality, cost, schedule, and safety—as with any other project, whether it is onshore or offshore.

However, each of these initiatives has its own specific peculiarities, which a seasoned manager would be familiar with but not the newbies. Unless, of course, the newcomer has invested some time in discovering the specifics and difficulties of the current project.

Residential Building

Residential development encompasses not only single-family homes but also low-rise (one to three storey) apartment buildings and high-rise apartment towers. Again, the requirements and the materials vary in this group. Wood frames and trusses, brick veneer, gypsum board, insulation, carpet, tiles, and concrete are typically used to construct single-family homes. In terms of architecture, this is significantly dissimilar to the other structures mentioned earlier.

In order to counter settlement pressures, pretensioned or post-tensioned slabs are frequently utilised for foundations in the form of concrete beam-slab systems. Costs in this category are far lower than those we covered in the categories above. Due to the location, the cost of the land typically predominates in more expensive homes. Of course, wealthy homes also have greater space, luxuries, and costly materials. These buildings are constructed quickly, usually in no more than six months. Regarding construction methods and materials, low-rise apartment buildings for multifamily housing are relatively comparable to single-family dwellings. As a result, this category's construction management is less complex than those in the first two categories mentioned above.

Infrastructures – Public

Public infrastructure includes things like dams, water management reservoirs, canals, courthouses, jails, high-rise and mid-rise buildings housing federal and state government offices, roadways, bridges, water and waste-water treatment facilities, etc.

Some of these buildings have certain specs and criteria. Comparing the specifics of, for example, a land bridge designed only for traffic versus a collapsible bridge over a body of water that opens to enable a ship pass through and then shuts again to act as a traffic carrying bridge is significant. Although the total installed costs (TIC) of these structures vary, the requirements for building materials and construction management are largely the same.

Technically, construction management is a multifaceted field that also requires exceptional tact and patience. As a result, you may use construction management techniques on any form of construction and anywhere if you are an expert in the field. However, if you are technically proficient in the field in which you are managing the project, it can be easier to manage your technical team and make specific decisions, which will go a long way toward the project's successful completion.

Chap. 8

Construction Stages

This chapter is devoted to describing the construction-related tasks that must be completed even during a project's concept development stage before construction can begin. Many design engineering and constructability factors are taken into account at the idea development stage of a project. Although the "Concept development" stage is a topic in and of itself, this ARTICLE does not cover it (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE). One of the first steps in both the beginning of a project and the staging of a project's construction is "Concept Development."

Consider an offshore pipeline project as an illustration as we go over the many stages of construction work staging:

The selection of the pipeline route is the initial phase in this procedure. The engineering office is in charge of figuring out the throughput needs and pipeline size. The choice of a pipeline's route is crucial to ensuring that it is both the most cost-effective and secure path away from dangers such vessel crossings, fishing lanes, ground faults, earthquake prone locations, etc. But the project is only just getting started now. The SMEs on the project would need to provide the necessary construction input to help with the various stages of this project (concept selection, FEED, detailed design, and construction/execution). As a result, the three primary subcategories of project construction staging are listed below:


In order to support the project commencement (idea selection) and engineering as stated above, some tasks are required.


At this time, the principal contractor is on the job site constructing the project infrastructure as the actual project execution is taking place.

following construction

This is immediately following the completion of the main project construction and the installation of all project components, but before to mechanical completion and commissioning.


Basic pre-construction tasks begin as soon as the project is launched. These operations are occasionally referred to as "construction engineering." These are crucial actions that must be taken in order to determine the project's cost, location, and safety requirements. There are four categories into which these pre-construction operations can be divided:




Permits and certifications

These operations would differ for offshore construction and onshore building, as you could expect. So let's start with the offshore first, utilising the already discussed offshore pipeline project as an example.

Offshore Building

1. Site

Site Investigation

Site reconnaissance involves flying over the proposed route area and/or bottom profiling, side scanning, etc. to check for any odd characteristics that could cause

construction issues with the project. These procedures capture photos of the sea floor's underwater characteristics.

After deciding on a location based on the findings of the reconnaissance, a corridor is chosen for the pipeline's proposed course. The site survey, also known as a bathymetric survey of the pipeline route, follows. This survey aids in determining the precise dimensions of the construction site and pipeline route.

Another activity is subsurface exploration, which involves using robotic, magnetic, or other technologies. The subsea is scanned to do this.

Checking the construction site for shipwrecks, abandoned pipes, unexploded ordnance, and other obstructions that can cause the project to be delayed, become more expensive, or even come to an end. If such items are found, the path is changed to get around them.

The engineering team determines the places for soil borings for a geotechnical study after this subsea scanning is finished and survey drawings are ready. The engineering team uses the geotechnical study report to design the foundations and other supports.

Identification of the Support Facilities:

The best loading-unloading ports for bringing construction support materials, workers, and equipment are found once a project location has been determined. Additionally, adequate fabrication shops for pipeline joints, facilities for coating line pipe with concrete and FBE, and numerous other facilities that would be considered important for the project are highlighted.

Activities Relating to Materials

Steel and concrete are the two most commonly utilised building materials. Establishing the different mechanical characteristics of steel is crucial for determining project operability and

safety. As a result, all steel-using vendors must conduct tests on small samples of the material and transmit the results to the project QA/QC Manager. These tests determine tensile strength and brittleness under a variety of environmental variables that have been adjusted to reflect actual working circumstances.

Another crucial component of building and construction management is welding. During this stage of construction, welding qualifications, materials, and techniques are crucial.

Concrete is far more difficult to utilise than steel since steel is produced before it is used and may be kept in big amounts for extended periods of time. However, using concrete usually happens right away. As a result, it is made quickly before being poured, and in relatively tiny amounts.

Two very significant aspects impacting the strength and longevity of concrete are the water-cement ratio and the "kind" of cement used in the concrete mix. Any person working on or overseeing cement concrete construction must be conversant with these factors, which is crucial.

Underwater cement is typically "quick-setting" and chloride resistant, especially in saline water. The concrete can be modified using a variety of chemical admixtures to fulfil the demands of the underwater environment. ²¹

Small cylinders are cast from the concrete that is being poured in order to determine and test the concrete's design compressive strength. The findings of the laboratory testing of these cylinders are then compared to the stipulated concrete strength criteria for the project and application. The "slump test" is another crucial measurement. It does not apply to underwater situations.

similar to how it is for pouring concrete ashore. Pouring the concrete mixture into an upside-down conical jar with a height of 12 inches is required for this test.

The larger end of the conical jar is towards the surface as soon as it is set down on a spotless, smooth surface. The concrete cone is then allowed to deform under the weight of itself after the conical vessel has been removed. The height of the deformed concrete cone is then measured, with the resulting calculations used to determine the strength of the concrete mix. This ARTICLE (OF BHADANIS INSTITUTE)21's Chapter 9 discusses this technical component of construction management.

Activities Relating to Equipment

The offshore vessel inspection/survey before it is approved for offshore work is one of the most significant but frequently ignored or minimised. This is done to guarantee that the boat chosen for the project is secure, useful, and seaworthy. It should be outfitted with all necessary equipment and be functional capacity certified. For instance, a pipelay vessel needs to have automatic welding equipment, be able to accommodate different pipe sizes, have pipe rollers that are in good condition, lay down facilities, and crew quarters.

approving and certifying

Before beginning the construction, various certificates and approvals are needed. Additionally, every project has unique requirements that vary depending on the location and materials used. For instance, offshore pipelines in the US require approval from the EPA, USMMA (US Minerals & Mining Administration), and archaeological authorities as well as environmental certificates. Then there are the local authorities, such as States and Cities, which might have various demands to be met before the construction can continue.

Onshore Building

As mentioned in the Offshore Construction section "A" above, concept development is based on numerous design engineering and constructability considerations.

Let's assume that this is an onshore pipeline project now. The concept development stage also marks the beginning of the planning for an onshore pipeline project. So, as before, choosing the pipeline route is the first step. Choosing the best pipeline route is crucial to ensuring that it is both affordable and secure. such as bodies of water, fault lines in the ground, mountains, liquefaction-prone soil, and earthquake-prone regions.

Three primary substages can be distinguished in project construction staging:

Pre-Construction: Specific tasks must be completed to support project initiation and engineering.

Construction: During this phase, the project is actually being carried out, and the lead contractor is out in the field constructing the infrastructure.

Post-Construction: This is the period following the installation of the primary infrastructure but before mechanical completion and commissioning.

Basic pre-construction activities begin as soon as the project is started. And this field of work is called "construction engineering." To determine a project's location, cost, constructability, and safety considerations, these are crucial steps similar to those in offshore projects. As before, four categories can be used to classify these activities:

Site Specific

Resource Related

related to equipment

Verifications & Certificates

As you can see, these activities for onshore construction and offshore construction are completely different.

One Site-Related

Site Investigation

In that it requires flying over or driving to the facility's location and observing any unusual land features that may cause issues with the project, this effort is comparable to offshore. After deciding on a location, a corridor is chosen for the pipeline's proposed route.

Typically, the corridor is much larger than the necessary pipeline route. The reason for this is that during construction, space must be used for trucks, machinery, and a location to store debris from the trench where the pipeline actually rests (assuming that the pipeline is going to be buried).

In addition, the line-pipe needs room for "Stringing," which is the process of preparing the line-pipe before placing it in the trench, ditch, etc. Therefore, the entire corridor must be large enough to accommodate all of the aforementioned activities at once. For a diagram of the layout of the corridor, see fig. 8-1.

After clearing the corridor, a preliminary survey is conducted. This makes it easier to determine the precise site dimensions for construction work.

Investigating below the surface is the next task. This includes not only geotechnical investigation but also other subsurface aspects pertaining to archaeological, religious, environmental, or sociologically significant discoveries. Unexploded bombs and other obstacles buried beneath the surface may also cause the project to be delayed, become more expensive, or even come to an end.

The engineering team uses the geotechnical study report to design the foundations and other supports. If necessary, determining pile driving techniques, hammer type and size, and other factors can be useful for building pile foundations.

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