top of page

ALL IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGERS

Activity - (1) A scheduling term (2) The smallest work unit within a project; the basic building block of a project. (see Project)

ADA - The Americans with Disabilities Act which gives civil rights protection to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, State and local government services, and telecommunications.

Addendum - (Addenda) Written information adding to, clarifying or modifying the bidding documents. An addendum is generally issued by the owner to the contractor during the bidding process and as such, addenda are intended to become part of the contract documents when the construction contract is executed.

Additional Services - Services provided over and above those designated as basic services in owner agreements with A/Es and CMs.

A/E - Architect/Engineer; the design professional hired by the owner to provide design and design-related services.

Agency CM (ACM) - ( CM Without Risk). A contractual form of the CM system exclusively performed in an agency relationship between the construction manager and owner. ACM is the form from which other CM forms and variations are derived.

Agent - One authorized by a client (principal) to act in his/her stead or behalf and owes the client a "fiduciary duty" (Trust). Example: Construction Manager for fee but classified as an independent contractor for tax purposes. A construction manager for fee does not have any financial responsibility whereas a construction manager at-risk does have financial risk similar to a general contractor.

Agreement - A legal document that binds two or more parties to specific and implied obligations, e.g., Contract.

Alterations - (1) A term used to describe partial construction work performed within an existing structure (2) Remodeling without a building addition.

Alternate Bid - Amount stated in the bid to be added or deducted from the base bid amount proposed for alternate materials and/or methods of construction.

Ancillary Benefits - Subordinate secondary benefits that automatically accrue from the performance of an unassociated prime responsibility.

Apparent Low Bidder - The bidder who has submitted the lowest competitive proposal as determined by a cursory examination of the bids submitted.

Application for Payment - Contractor's written request for payment for completed portions of the work and, for materials delivered or stored and properly labeled for the respective project.

Approved Bidders List - The list of contractors that have survived pre-qualification tests.

Approved Changes - Changes of any nature in contract requirements which have been agreed upon through a change approval process and approved by the owner.

Architect - An individual who designs and supervises the professional design for the construction of buildings or other structures.

Architects Basic Services - A recognized series of phases performed by an architect as follows: 1st Schematic Design Phase, 2nd Design Development Phase, 3rd Construction Document Phase, 4th Bidding or Negotiated Phase, 5th Construction Phase.

Architect-Engineer (A/E) - An individual or firm offering professional services as both architect and engineer.

Architectural Drawing - A line drawing showing plan and/or elevation views of the proposed building for the purpose of showing the overall appearance of the building.

Arrow Diagram - Also known as the I-J method or Activity-on Arrow method. This method uses arrows, pointing in the direction of schedule flow, to represent activities with duration and circles (nodes) at each end of the arrow designating the start and finish events (dates) of each activity.

As-Built Drawings - Drawings marked up to reflect changes made during the construction process or after construction that amend the Contract Drawings to show the exact location, geometry, and dimensions of the constructed project. It is good practice to make As-Built Drawings by marking the changes on reproducible drawings such a mylar, vellum or sepias for the duplication purposes later. As-Built Drawings are not the same as Record Drawings.

Basic Services - The services specially listed in the services agreement as basic services.

Beneficial Occupancy - The point of project completion when the owner can use the constructed facility in whole or in part for its intended purpose even though final completion may not be achieved.

Bid - A binding offer, usually expressed in dollars to provide specific services within clearly stated requirements.

Bid Bond - A written form of security executed by the bidder as principal and by a surety for the purpose of guaranteeing that the bidder will sign the contract, if awarded the contract, for the stated bid amount. The Surety is a third-party that makes a pledge to pay liquidated damages to the owner to the extent of the difference between the bonded contractor bid and the next highest bidder but not to exceed the face value of the bond; if the bonded contractor declines an award offered by the owner.

Bid Date/Time - The due date and time set by the owner, architect or engineer for receiving bids.

Bid Depository - A physical location where trade contractor proposals are fled the day before general contractor bids are to be received by an owner for pickup, opening, acceptance, or rejection by general contractors bidding the owner’s project.

Bid Division - A portion of the total project reserved for contractors for bidding and performance purposes, i.e., Division of Work or Work-Scope.

Bid Division Description - A narrative description of the concise work-scope to be bid and performed by a contractor, Division of Work Description or Work Scope Description.

Bid Documents - The documents distributed to contractors by the owner for bidding purposes. They include drawings, specifications, form of contract, general and supplementary conditions, proposal forms, and other information including addenda.

Bid Form - A standard written form furnished to all bidders for the purpose of obtaining the requested information and required signatures from the authorized bidding representatives.

Bid Opening - The actual process of opening and tabulating bids submitted within the prescribed bid date/time and conforming with the bid procedures. A Bid Opening can be open (where the bidders are permitted to attend) or closed (where the bidders are not permitted to attend).

Bid Price - The stipulated sum stated in the bidder’s bid.

Bidding Documents - The published advertisement or written invitation to bid , instructions to bidders, the bid form and the proposed contract documents including any acknowledged addenda issued prior to receipt of bids.

Bidding Period - The calendar period allowed from issuance of bidding requirements and contract documents to the prescribed bid date/time.

Bidding Requirements - The written minimum acceptable requirements set forth by the owner to the contractor during bidding process. The owner usually reserves the right to reject a bid if the Bidding Requirements are not met.

Bid Shopper - A buyer or client who seeks to play one proposed supplier or subcontractor against the other for the purpose of reducing a purchase price.

Bid Shopping - Negotiations to obtain lower costs and prices both prior to submitting proposals and after signing contracts.

Bid Tabulation - A summary sheet listing all bid prices.

Bid Time - The time set by the owner, architect or engineer for receiving bids.

Bond - (see Bid Bond, Contract Bond, Contract Payment Bond, Contract Performance Bond, Labor and Material Payment Bond, Performance Bond or Subcontractor Bond).

Bonding Company - A properly licensed firm or corporation willing to execute a surety bond, or bonds, payable to the owner, securing the performance on a contract either in whole or in part; or securing payment for labor and materials.

Bonus-Penalty Clause - A positive/negative incentive to comply with a schedule. A bonus is paid for timely performance; a penalty is assessed for untimely performance. The dollar amount of the bonus and penalty must be equal, e.g., Penalty-Bonus clause in a contract.

Budget (Construction Budget) - (1) An itemized summary of estimated or intended expenditures for a given period of time (2) The total sum of money allocated for a specific project.

Budget Estimate - An estimate of cost based on rough or incomplete information, with a stated degree of accuracy. The more information available, the more accurate the estimate. Loosely called a "ballpark" estimate.

Building - (1) To form by combining materials or parts (2) A structure enclosed within a roof and within exterior walls housing, shelter, enclosure and support of individuals, animals, or real property of any kind.

Building Code - The legal requirements set up by the prevailing various governing agencies covering the minimum acceptable requirements for all types of construction.

Building Envelope - (1) The waterproof elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior. (2) The outer structure of the building. (sometimes referred to as "Building Shell")

Building Inspector/Official - A qualified government representative authorized to inspect construction for compliance with applicable building codes, regulations and ordinances. Courts have ruled that building inspections are exempt from errors and omissions liabilities.

Building Permit - A written document issued by the appropriate governmental authority permitting construction to begin on a specific project in accordance with drawings and specifications approved by the governmental authority.

Building Process - A term used to express every step of a construction project from it’s conception to final acceptance and occupancy.

Bulletin - A delineation, narrative or both describing a proposed change for pricing by a contractor and for consideration as a change by the owner.

Changed Conditions - Conditions or circumstances, physical or otherwise, which surface after a contract has been signed and which alter the circumstances or conditions on which the contract is based, i.e., Concealed Conditions or Latent Conditions.

Change Order - A written document between the owner and the contractor signed by the owner and the contractor authorizing a change in the work or an adjustment in the contract sum or the contract time. A change order may be signed by the architect or engineer, provided they have written authority from the owner for such procedure and that a copy of such written authority is furnished to the contractor upon request. The contract sum and the contract time may be changed only by change order. A change order may be in the form of additional compensation or time; or less compensation or time known as a Deduction (from the contract) the amount deducted from the contract sum by change order.

Change Order Proposal - A change order proposal is the written document before it has been approved and effected by the Contractor and Owner. A change order proposal can be issued by either the contractor or the owner. The change order proposal becomes a change order only after it has been approved and effected by the Contractor and Owner.

Change Order Request - A written document issued by the owner requesting an adjustment to the contract sum or an extension of the contract time; generally issued by the architect or owners representative.

Chart of Accounts - An alpha/numeric identification system for budget line items that ensures that project expenditures are properly debited/credited in the project budget as payments are made in behalf of the project.

Checks and Balances - The term used to describe the use of the overlapping expertise of each team member during team decision making.

Claim - A formal notice sent by a contractor to an owner asserting the fact that the terms of the contract have been breached and compensation is being sought by the contractor from the owner.

Clerk-of-the-Work - An individual employed by an owner to represent him on a project at the site of the work. The clerk-of-the-work's abilities, credentials, and responsibilities vary at the discretion of the owner.

Closed Bid - A specific term used where only invited bidders or estimators are given access to the prescribed project information. Usually the owner provides a designed list of invitees.

CM - The abbreviation for Construction Management and Construction Manager (a firm that provides CM services or persons who work for a CM firm).

CM Fee Plus Reimbursables - A form of payment for CM services where the construction manager is paid a fixed or percentage fee for CM expertise, plus pre-established hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly costs for field personnel and equipment.

CM Format - The interactive contracting approach to providing a project's needs, used by the CM project team to manage a project.

CM Partnering - A contractual commitment by the Owner, A/E, and CM to achieve a common goal, and doing so without a stakeholder's exposure to a potential for conflict of interest in pursuit of that goal.

CM Philosophy - An enlightened approach to accomplishing an owner-oriented end result using a system of motivating concepts and principles for achievement.

CM Procedures Manual - The depository for the proprietary micro-management procedures used by the CM to detail and facilitate the service obligations owed to a client.

CM Project Manual - The common depository for the micro-management procedures to be used on the project by the team to accomplish project requirements.

CM Services - The scope of services provided by a construction manager and available to owners in whole or in part. CM services are not consistent in scope or performance from one CM firm to another.

Codes - Prevailing regulations, ordinances or statutory requirements set forth by governmental agencies associated with building construction practices and owner occupancy, adopted and administered for the protection of public health, life safety and welfare.

Collateral Information - Information of value that is unexpectedly made available through the routine performance of another activity or activities.

Commissioning - The process at or near construction completion when a facility is put into use to see if it functions as designed. Usually applied to manufacturing type projects, and similar to Beneficial Occupancy in the commercial sector.

Completion Schedule - A schedule of the activities and events required to effect occupancy or the use of a facility for its intended purpose. It is used to determine if construction progress will meet the occupancy date.

Conditions of the Contract - Term that refers to the General Conditions and the Supplementary and Special Conditions of the contract for construction.

Construct - To assemble and combine construction materials and methods to make a structure.

Constructability - The optimizing of cost, time, and quality factors with the material, equipment, construction means, methods, and techniques used on a project; accomplished by matching owner values with available construction industry practices.

Construction - The act or process of constructing.

Construction Budget - The target cost figure covering the construction phase of a project. It includes the cost of contracts with trade contractors, construction support items other purchased labor, material and equipment, and the construction manager's cost but not the cost of land, A/E fees, or consultant fees.

Construction Coordination - The orchestration or interfacing of performing contractors on-site.

Construction Cost - (1) The direct contractor costs for labor, material, equipment, and services; contractors overhead and profit; and other direct construction costs. Construction cost does not include the compensation paid to the architect and engineer and consultants, the cost of the land, rights-of-way or other costs which are defined in the contract documents as being the responsibility of the owner.

Construction Documents - All drawings, specifications and addenda associated with a specific construction project. These documents delineate and graphically represent the physical construction requirements established by the A/E.

Construction Documents Phase - The third phase of the architect's basic services wherein the architect prepares working drawings, specifications and bidding information. Depending on the architects scope of services the architect may assists the owner in the preparation of bidding forms, the conditions of the contract and the form of agreement between the owner and contractor.

Construction Document Review - The owners review of the borrowers construction documents (plans and specifications), list of materials, and cost breakdowns for the purpose of confirming that these documents and estimates are feasible and are in accordance with the proposed loan or project appraisal.

Construction Inspector - A qualified individual authorized by the owner to assist in the inspection of the construction project to ensure compliance with the contract documents and/or a specific construction contract.

Construction Management (CM) - A project delivery system that uses a construction manager to facilitate the design and construction of a project by organizing and directing men, materials, and equipment to accomplish the purpose of the designer. A professional service that applies effective management techniques to the planning, design, and construction of a project from inception to completion for the purpose of controlling time, cost and quality, as defined by the Construction Management Association of America (CMAA).

Construction Management Contract - A written agreement wherein responsibilities for coordination and accomplishment of overall project planning, design and construction are given to a construction management firm. The building team generally consists of the owner, contractor and designer or architect.

Construction Manager - A firm or business organization with the expertise and resources to manage the design, contracting, and construction aspects of project delivery. Individuals who work for a CM Firm are also referred to as Construction Managers.

Construction Phase - The fifth and final phase of the architect's basics services, which includes the architect's general administration (G&A) of the construction contract.

Construction Schedule - A graphic, tabular or narrative representation or depiction of the construction portion of the project-delivery process, showing activities and durations in sequential order.

Construction Support Items - Purchases, services, or materials required to facilitate construction at the site. As part of the construction budget, these are financial obligations of the owner and the logistic responsibility of the CM.

Construction Team - The designated responsible project management of each trade contractor plus the Level 2 and Level 3 Managers of the owner, A/E, and CM, i.e., Project Team.

Constructor-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM where the construction manager self-performs some of the construction on the project.

Consultant Professional firm and/or individual hired by the owner or client to give professional advise.

Contingencies - Line-item amounts in the project budget, dedicated to specific cost areas where oversight is an inherent problem in project delivery.

Contract - (1) An agreement between two or more parties, especially one that is written and enforceable by law (2) The writing or document containing such an agreement.

Contract Administration - The contractual duties and responsibilities of the A/E, contractor or CM during the construction phase of a specific project fo servicing the interactive provisions in the contract for construction.

Contract Bond - A written form of security from a surety company, on behalf of an acceptable prime or main contractor or subcontractor, guaranteeing complete execution of the contract and all supplemental agreements pertaining thereto and for the payment of all legal debts pertaining to the construction of the project.

Contract Date - 1) Usually on the front page of the agreement (2) If not on front page it may be the date opposite the signatures when the agreement was actually signed (3) or when it was recorded (4) or the date the agreement was actually awarded to the contractor.

Contract Document Phase - The final phase of design on an architectural project when construction documents are completed and bidding documents formulated.

Contract Document Review - A review of Bid and/or Contract Documents on a continuing basis, or at short intervals during the pre-construction phase, to preclude errors, ambiguities, and omissions.

Contract Documents - A term used to represent all executed agreements between the owner and contractor, any general, supplementary or other contract conditions, the drawings and specifications, all bidding documents less bidding information plus pre-award addenda issued prior to execution of the contract and post-award Change Orders, and any other items specifically stipulated as being included in the contract documents, which collectively form the contract between the contractor and the owner.

Contract Overrun - The cost deficit after determining the difference between the original contract price and the final completed cost including all adjustments by approved change order.

Contract Payment Bond - A written form of security from a surety company to the owner, on behalf of an acceptable prime or main contractor or subcontractor, guaranteeing payment to all persons providing labor, materials, equipment, or services in accordance with the contract.

Contract Performance Bond - A written form of security from a surety company to the owner, on behalf of an acceptable prime or main contractor or subcontractor, guaranteeing the completion of the work in accordance with the terms of the contract.

Contract Period - The elapsed number of working days or calendar days from the specified date of commencing work to the specified date of completion, as specified in the contract.

Contract Sum - The total agreeable amount payable by the owner to the contractor for the performance of the work under the contract documents.

Contract Time - The time period set forth established in the contract documents for completing a specific project; usually stated in working days or calendar days. The contract time can only be adjusted by valid time extensions through change order.

Contract Underrun - The cost savings after determining the difference between the original contract price and the final completed cost including all adjustments by approved change order.

Contracting Officer - An official representative of the owner with specific authority to act in his behalf in connection with a specific project.

Contractor - A properly licensed individual of company that contracts to perform a defined scope of work on a construction project and agrees to furnish labor, materials, equipment and associated services to perform the work as specified for a specified price.

Contractor/Constructor-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM where the construction manager holds construction contracts and self-performs construction on the project.

Contractor-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM where the construction manager holds construction contracts for the project.

Contractor's Option - A written provision in the contract documents giving the contractor the option of selecting certain specified materials, methods or systems without changing in the contract sum.

Contractor's Qualification Statement - A written statement of the Contractor's experience and qualifications submitted to the Owner during the contractor selection process. The American Institute of Architects publishes a standard Contractor's Qualification Statement form for this purpose.

Contractability - The optimizing of cost, time, and quality factors with the contracting structures and techniques used on a project; accomplished by matching owner contracting requirements with available construction industry practices.

Contractual Liability - The liability assumed by a party under a contract.

Control CM - A person designated by the CM firm to interface with the owner’s and A/E’s representatives on the project team at the second management level.

Coordination Meeting - Meeting held in the field to review project status and coordinate scheduled activities.

Coordinator - A person designated to assist a Control CM, Project Manager, or Level 2 Manager in executing the CM format.

Cost Breakdown - A financial statement furnished by the contractor to the architect or engineer delineating the portions of the contract sum allotted for the various parts of the work and used as the basis for reviewing the contractor's applications for progress payments.

Cost Codes - A numbering system given to specific kinds of work for the purpose of organizing the cost control process of a specific project.

Cost Control / Cost Management - Deliberations, actions, and reactions to project cost fluctuations during a project to maintain the project cost within the project budget.

Cost of Construction - The target cost figure covering the construction phase of a project. It includes the cost of contracts with trade contractors, construction support items other purchased labor, material and equipment, and the construction manager's cost but not the cost of land, A/E fees, or consultant fees.

Cost of Work - All costs incurred by the contractor in the proper performance of the work required by the plans and specifications for a specific project.

Cost Plus Contract - A form of contract usually between an owner and contractor, A/E design professional, or CM, under which the contractor, A/E or CM is reimbursed for his/her direct and indirect costs and, in addition, is paid a fee for his/her services. The fee is usually stated as a stipulated sum or as a percentage of cost.

Cost Plus Fee Agreement - A written agreement with the owner under which the contractor, A/E or CM for "Cost-Plus" work.

Credibility - The quality of something that makes it believable.

Critical Date Schedule - A schedule of milestones spanning from the start of construction to occupancy, used as the main measure of progress to keep the project on schedule.

Critical Path - The continuous chain of activities from project-start to project-finish, whose durations cannot be exceeded if the project is to be completed on the project-finish date. A sequence of activities that collectively require the longest duration to complete (the duration of the sequence is the shortest possible time from the start event to the finish event). Activities on the critical path have no slack time.

Critical Path Method (CPM) - A planning scheduling and control line and symbol diagram drawn to show the respective tasks and activities involved in constructing a specific project.

Critical Path Schedule - A schedule that utilizes the Critical Path scheduling technique using either the arrow or precedence diagramming method.

CSI - Abbreviation for the Construction Specification Institute

CSI Master Format - The CSI Master Format is a system of numbers and titles for organizing construction information into a regular, standard order or sequence. By establishing a master list of titles and numbers Master Format promotes standardization and thereby facilitates the retrieval of information and improves construction communication. It provides a uniform system for organizing information in project manuals, for organizing project cost data, and for filing product information and other technical data.

Currant Date Line - A vertical line on the chart indicating the currant date.

Daily Construction Report - A written document and record that has two main purposes: (1) they furnish information to off-site persons who need and have a right to know important details of events as they occur daily and hourly, and (2) they furnish historical documentation that might later have a legal bearing in cases of disputes. Daily reports should be as factual and impersonal as possible, free from the expression of personal opinions and feelings. Each report should be numbered to correspond with the working days established on the progress schedule. In the event of no-work days, a daily report should still be made, stating "no work today" ( due to rain, strike, or other causes). The report includes a description of the weather; a record of the total number of employees, subcontractors by name, work started and completed today, equipment on the job site, job progress today, names and titles of visitors, accidents and/or safety meetings, and a remarks column for other job related information.

Date of Agreement - (1) Usually on the front page of the agreement (2) If not on front page it may be the date opposite the signatures when the agreement was actually signed (3) or when it was recorded (4) or the date the agreement was actually awarded to the contractor.

Date of Commencement of the Work - The date established in a written notice to proceed from the owner to the contractor.

Date of Substantial Completion - The date certified by the architect when the work or a designated portion thereof is sufficiently complete, in accordance with the contract documents, so the owner may occupy the work or designated portion thereof for the use for which it is intended.

Demising Walls - The boundaries that separate your space from your neighbors' and from the public corridor.

Design - A graphical representation consisting of plan views, interior and exterior elevations, sections, and other drawings and details to depict the goal or purpose for a building or other structure.

Design-Build (D-B) - A project delivery method where a design-build contractor (contractor-led D-B), A/E design professional (design-led D-B) or CM (CM-led D-B) is directly responsible for both the total project design and construction of the project. Design-Build liability can be explicitly conveyed through the contract documents or implicitly conveyed through the assumption of project-specific design liability, via performance specifications.

Design-Build Contracting - A contract structure where both design and construction responsibility are vested in a single contractor.

Design-Build Contractor - A contractor that provides design and construction services under a single responsibility contract to an owner.

Design-Build Construction - When a Prime or Main contractor bids or negotiates to provide Design and Construction services for the entire construction project.

Design-Construct Contract - A written agreement between and contractor and owner wherein the contractor agrees to provide both design and construction services.

Design-Development Phase - The second phase of the architect's basic services wherein the architect prepares drawings and other presentation documents to fix and describe the size and character of the entire project as to architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical systems, materials and other essentials as may be appropriate; and prepares a statement of probable construction cost.

Designability - A pragmatic, value-based assessment of the design in comparison with the stated physical and aesthetic needs of the owner.

Detail - (1) An individual part or item (2) A graphical scale representation, e.g., a drawing at a larger scale, of construction parts or items showing materials, composition and dimensions.

Detailed Construction Schedule - A graphic, tabular or narrative representation or depiction of the construction portion of the project-delivery process, showing individual activities and durations or activities in sequential order at the lowest level of detail (Level-3 Schedule).

Design Development Phase - The term used on architectural projects to describe the transitional phase from the Schematic Phase to the Contract Document during design.

Design-XCM - A variation of the extended services form of CM, where the A/E also provides the CM function.

Direct Costs - The costs directly attributed to a work-scope, such as labor, material, equipment, and subcontracts but not t he cost of operations overhead and the labor, material, equipment, and subcontracts expended in support of the undertaking. Direct Costs, Hard Costs, and Construction Costs are synonymous.

Direct Labor Costs - Costs accruing from expended labor excluding the bonus portion of overtime, insurances, and payroll taxes.

Direct Material Costs - Costs accruing from material acquisition including purchase price, freight, and taxes.

Division of Work - A portion of the total project reserved for contractors for bidding and performance purposes, i.e., Bid Division or Work-Scope.

Division of Work Description - A narrative description of the concise work-scope to be bid and performed by a contractor; Bid Description Division or Work Scope.

Drawings - (1) A term used to represent that portion of the contract documents that graphically illustrates the design, location, geometry and dimensions of the components and elements contained in a specific project in sufficient detail to facilitate construction. (2) A line drawing.

Dual Services - The providing of more than one principal service under a single contract or multiple contracts.

Duration - The length of an activity, excluding holidays and other non-working days.

Dynamic Decisions - Decisions that are made without team deliberations. Autonomous or bilateral decisions based on policy, procedures, or experience.

Dynamic Risk - The risk inherent to a speculative decision. The risk-taker can either gain, lose, or break even from the risk.

Employment Agreement - A contract binding an employee to an employer for a specific length of time and for disclosed compensation.

Engineer - A professional firm and/or individual who is professionally engaged in an engineering discipline.

Escrow Account - Money put into the custody of the third party by the first party for disbursement tot the second party. A brief temporary depository for progress payments until authorized for release according to the depositor’s explicit instructions.

Estimate - (1) To calculate approximately the amount, extent or value of something (2) To form an opinion of estimated costs.

Estimated Cost to Complete - An estimate of the cost still to be expended on a work-scope in order to complete it. The difference between the Cost to Date and the Estimated Final Cost.

Estimated Final Cost - An estimate of the final cost of a work item based on its Cost to Date and the estimated cost to complete it. The sum of the Cost to Date and the Estimated Cost to Complete.

Estimate of Construction Cost - A calculation of costs prepared on the basis of a detailed analysis of materials and labor for all items of work, as contrasted with an estimate based on current area, volume or similar unit costs.

Estimating - A process of calculating the amount of material, labor and equipment required for a given project necessary to complete the work as specified.

Ethics - Self-imposed rules or standards of performance for professionals set by the organization or association to which the professional belongs or by the public trust.

Extended Services - Dissimilar services included in a contract to be performed over and above those that are included as the principal services of the contract.

Extended Services-CM - A form of CM where other services such as design, construction, and contracting are included with ACM services provided by the construction manager.

Facilitator - A person who leads by logic, suggestion and example more so than by direction.

Fast-Track or Fast-Tracking - The process of designing portions of a project while portions already designed are under construction. A series of controlled design-build sequences that collectively constitute a complete project.

Fast Track Construction - A method of construction management which involves a continuous design-construction operation. When a prime or main contractor starts the construction work before the plans and specifications are complete.

Feasibility Phase - The conceptual phase of a project preceding the Design Phase used to determine from various perspectives whether a project should be constructed or not.

Fee Enhancement - The awarding of an additional fee, over and above the basic fee for services, based on the performance quality of the party providing the basic service.

Fiduciary - One who stands in a special relationship of trust, confidence, and responsibility regarding contracted obligations.

Field-Based CM Field Organization - A project organization structure that bases the CM’s 2nd Level representative and certain resource persons in the field rather than in the office.

Field Construction Manager - A person designated by the CM firm to interface with the owner’s and A/E’s representatives on the project team at the third management level. A person located at the site and charged to administer the procedures established by the team’s Level 2 Manager for the construction of the project.

Field Management - The coordination and management of owner-contracted resources on-site during construction.

Field Order (FO) - An written order issued to a contractor by the owner, or owner's representative, i.e., A/E design professional, effecting a minor change or clarification with instructions to perform work not included in the contract for construction. The work will eventually become a Change Order. A Field Order is an expedient process used in an emergency or need situation, that in many cases does not involve an adjustment to the contract sum or an extension of the contract time.

Field Report - A written document and record that has two main purposes: (1) they furnish information to off-site persons who need and have a right to know important details of events as they occur daily and hourly, and (2) they furnish historical documentation that might later have a legal bearing in cases of disputes. Daily reports should be as factual and impersonal as possible, free from the expression of personal opinions and feelings. Each report should be numbered to correspond with the working days established on the progress schedule. In the event of no-work days, a daily report should still be made, stating "no work today" ( due to rain, strike, or other causes). The report includes a description of the weather; a record of the total number of employees, subcontractors by name, work started and completed today, equipment on the job site, job progress today, names and titles of visitors, accidents and/or safety meetings, and a remarks column for other job related information.

Field Schedule - A graphic, tabular or narrative representation or depiction of the construction portion of the project-delivery process, showing field activities and durations in sequential order. A short interval field-based schedule that plans contractor and subcontractor activities on a month-to-month, week-to-week, or day-to-day basis from the project milestone schedule.

Field Work Order (FWO) - A written request to a subcontractor or vendor, usually from the general or main contractor, site for services or materials.

Final Acceptance - The action of the owner accepting the work from the contractor when the owner deems the work completed in accordance with the contract requirements. Final acceptance is confirmed by the owner when making the final payment to the contractor.

Final Completion - The point at which both parties to a contract declare the other has satisfactorily completed its responsibilities under the contract.

Final Design Phase - The designation used by engineers for the last portion of the design process prior to bidding.

Final Inspection - A final site review of the project by the contractor, owner or owner’s authorized representative prior to issuing the final certificate for payment.

Final Payment - The last payment from the owner to the contractor of the entire unpaid balance of the contract sum as adjusted by any approved change orders.

Financial and Management Control System - A manual or computerized management control system used by the project team to guide the course of a project and record its status and progress.

Financial Stakeholder - A party involved by contract to perform a prescribed definitive physical work-scope for a sum of money, who stands to lose or gain money form the eventual outcome of the project or how it is performed.

Finish Date - The date that an activity or project is completed.

Fixed Fee - A set contract amount for all labor, materials, equipment and services; and contractors overhead and profit for all work being performed for a specific scope of work.

Fixed Limit of Construction Costs - A construction cost ceiling agreed to between the owner and architect or engineer for designing a specific project.

FF&E - (1) An abbreviation for furniture, fixtures and equipment (2) Items classified as personal property rather than real property (3) An abbreviation generally associated with interior design and planning of retail stores or office facilities.

Float - A scheduling term indicating that an activity or a sequence of activities does not necessarily have to start or end on the scheduled date to maintain the schedule on the critical path. The difference between the early start and late finish of an activity, minus the activities duration.

Force Account Work - Work done and paid for on an expended time and material basis.